概 要


JAPAN ACADEMY OF LABOR AND MANAGEMENT

1. General Description
The Japan Academy of Labor and Management (JALM) was established by Susumu KAIDO (the first president of JALM, emeritus professor of Kobe University), Shin-ichiro KIMOTO (the second president, emeritus professor of Meiji University), Hiroshi HASEGAWA (emeritus professor of Chuo University), Hiromu SHIMA (the third president, emeritus professor of Doshisya University) and 12 other scholars on May 10, 1991, at the Surugadai Memorial Hall of Chuo University. As of the end of June 2004 there were 278 individual members.
The mission of this Academy is to develop academic and theoretical research of labor and management issues together with practical research. Our guiding motto is; “A critical attitude, the prime mover of academic development, is the soul of the Academy” (S.Kaido, the Bulletin of JALM, No.1, 1991) and it is this ‘critical attitude’ that defines our tradition and common unique identity.
Past Presidents are as follows;

1991-1994 Susumu KAIDO (Nara-Sangyou Univ.)
1994-1997 Sin-Ichiro KIMOTO (Meiji Univ.)
1997-2000 Hiromu SHIMA (Doshisya Univ.)
2000-2003 Masaki HAYASHI(Chuo Univ.)
2003-2006 Nobuo MORIKAWA (Hiroshima-Syudo Univ.)
2006-Ken'ichi KURODA (Meiji Univ.)

 

2. Annual Conferences and Themes
Since its establishment an annual academic conference has been held every summer. The main themes, the host universities are as follows;

1st Conference, May 10-11, 1991;
Held at Chuo University, its main theme was “Issues of Employment and Human Resources in the Japanese Management System.”

2nd Conference, May 8-9, 1992;
Held at Meijo University, its main theme was “Internationalization and Contemporary Issues of Human Resources.”

3rd Conference, May 29-30, dates), 1993;
Held at Sapporo University, its main theme was “Japanese-type Corporate Society and Human Resource Management”.

4th Conference, May 20-21, 1994;
Held at Kansai University, its main theme was “Mobilization of Labor Market and Human Resource Management.”

5th Conference, May 19-20, 1995;
Held at Meiji University, its main theme was “Human Resource Management of White Collar Employees.”

6th Conference, May 25-26, 1996;
Held at Kwansei Gakuin University, its main theme was “Change of Japanese Management and Human Resource Management.”

7th Conference, May 24-25, 1997;
Held at Komazawa University, its main theme was “Deregulation and Human Resources”

8th Conference, May 29-31, 1998;
Held at Doshisya University, its main theme was “Changes in Employment Form in Japan”

9th Conference, June 25-27, 1999;
Held at Tokyo University of Agriculture at Abashiri, its main theme was “Regional Economy and Employment”

10th Conference, June 9-11, 2000;
Held at School of Commerce, Nihon University, its main theme was “Changes in Employment and Labor Issues under the Mega-Competition”

11th Conference, June 8-10, 2001;
Held at Ritsumeikan University at Biwako-kusatsu, its main theme was “ IT Revolution and Human Resource”

12th Conference, June 7-9, 2002;
Held at Iwate University, its main theme was “Some Problems on Employment in Recent Years”

13th Conference, June 13-15, 2003;
Held at Hiroshima-Syudo University, its main theme was “The Transformation of Personnel and Employment System, and Industrial Relations”

14th Conference, July 16-18, 2004;
Held at Kyushu University, its main theme was “New Issues in Labor and Management”

15th Conference, June 10-12, 2005;
Held at Sakushin-Gakuin University, its main theme was “Crisis of Manufacturing and Current Vocational Training”

16th Conference, June 9-11, 2006;
Held at Chukyo University, its main theme was “Developments after the Recommendation of ‘ New Japanese Management ’ ”

17th Conference, May 11-13, 2007;
Held at Meiji University, its main theme was “International Comparisons of Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor ”

 

18th Conference, June 13-15, 2008;
Held at Kanazawa University, its main theme was “Labor Management in Five Advanced Countries Today”

*For main presenters’ names and their speech titles in each annual conference, see Table 1-18.

 

3. The Present State of Japanese Human Resource Management and Recent Research Activities
The Japanese business environment has drastically changed since the 1990’s. Two far-reaching changes have impacted not only Japanese industry but also the rest of the world.
The first change is the information technology revolution (or networking of information technology) in the workplace. IT opened the giving and receiving information to all, and so created new and various needs from customers. One main result was that the mass production system is no longer efficient and has become old-fashioned(Syoji Akino, 2002). At the same time, IT also has changed the labor process. On the one hand, it needs a new type of workers who are so-called ‘symbolic analysts’, and who can analyze, decode, interpret and reform information. On the other hand a lot of operators who input information into computers engage in just simple, fragmentary and uninteresting work. Thus the IT revolution has split workers into two groups, i.e., a “sophisticated” skilled group and the other large group of ordinary low-skilled workers (Minoru Fujita, 2002).
The second change taking place is globalization. Restructuring and deregulation policies, which are based upon the neo-liberalism theory, cause severe competition in the market, so-called Mega-Competition. Under these conditions, reducing costs as much as possible is absolutely necessary (Ken-ichi Kuroda 2000, Younosuke Ogoshi, 2004).

Facing these momentous changes, many Japanese employers have changed their policy of human resource management, a policy which greatly contributed to the rapid growth of the Japanese economy since the 1960’s.
Firstly, many regular workers were “restructured”, and this serious activity by management caused the collapse Japanese of the traditional employment practice (the well-known so-called lifetime employment system). In 1985, Japan Business Federation (Keidanren, former Japan Federation of Employers’ Association = Nikkeiren) officially published “New Japanese Management for Future Society” in which they recommended a portfolio of employment, i.e. diversity of employment. According to recent labor markets, workers are divided into a few regular workers and a main body of non-regular workers. The latter group consists of part-time workers, temporary workers and other contingent workers (Younosuke Ogoshi, 2004).

The second change concerning HRM is the pay system. It is well known that Japanese workers are paid in accordance with age or length-of-service, the so-called Nenko (Japanese seniority) wage system. Though this is not true of all companies, certainly we can find this tendency among regular male workers (Japanese “salary men”) in large companies. But it does not mean that wage levels depend on just one’s age or length-of-service. The fact is that Japanese companies employ many new graduates who are un-skilled when they enter, and then train them within the company. Under these circumstances, if wage levels are decided in accordance with the level of one’s skill or one’s competency as measured by appraisal, they seem apparently to be accompanied by age or length-of-service. This pay system is called Japanese skill or competency based pay (Syokunou-kyu). But these relationships between age (or length-of-service) and skill (or competency) have collapsed, because of the IT revolution and globalization. On the one hand, new skills and new competencies needed by companies do not increase in proportion to age or length-of-service, and on the other hand the principle of Japanese skill or competency based pay tends to raise pay levels. And so many companies have introduced a new pay system, which is a performance-based or result-based pay system (Seikasyugi). But these do not necessarily work successfully as shown in the failed case of Fujitsu Company (Takashi Moriya, 2004, Hiromu Shima, 2005, Takao Nagai, 2005).

The third change in the Japanese business environment is the system of working hours. Because of the IT revolution and globalization, the conventional work pattern of working normally 9 to 5 is not capable of dealing with the new business reality, and is not rational for R&D engineers’ job. In briefly, it has been said that management by a fixed hour system does not fit the current business environment. The working hour system has changed from the old rigid pattern to new more flexible patterns, for example de facto working hours system, flexible working hours, variable working hours system, discretionary work, and so on. This shift is encouraged by the deregulation of labor law. While these new working hour arrangements contribute to reducing wage costs and improving labor productivity, we must point out that they can have a bad influence upon workers’ health.
Lastly, as the factors related to HRM have changed, the basic HRM system has also changed. In 1969, when the Japanese economy began to expand into the competitive international market, the JBF (former JFEA) proposed a new personnel management system, which it called “competency-based personnel management”(CPM). Since that time, it has been adopted as the basic and total management policy of Japanese HRM. The CPM has been formed into a concrete shape within the Personnel Ranking System based on Competence (PRSC, Syokunou-shikaku-seido), which is a unique total treatment system applied to all fields and to the full range of employment conditions from job assignment, education and training, promotion and pay raises to the end of workers’ contracts and retirement. But as a result of the IT revolution and globalization, the CPM and PRSC do not seem to work efficiently, as seen in the case of the pay system. Because there are many new varieties of jobs created, workers who work hard with discipline, positive attitude, responsibility and cooperation can not always achieve good performance. Therefore management and their consultants claim strongly that it needs to evaluate workers not according to their capability, effort and so on, but according to result or/and concrete performance. Now we can find that many management and HR managers are attempting to reform PRSC by using the concept of American competency, but it has not been particularly successful, as in the case of the pay system.

 

4. Conclusion and Future Challenges
As mentioned above, CPM and PRSC are the core HRM systems which have contributed to high productivity and good performance in Japan. This thesis is our common perception. Using these systems, Japanese employers can flexibly treat employees just as they wish unless unions decide to resist them.
Due to limited space, which necessitates abbreviating, we have another common perception, which is a characteristic feature of Japanese industrial relations. Militant, strong class-consciousness and radical unions had been removed from Japanese private companies and the workplace before the JFEA proposed the CPM. The JFEA emphasized the removal of hostile leftist unions and fostered cooperative unions. As a result, Japanese unions abandoned job control power, developed a cozy relationship with management, were soaked in the so-called “company-first principle”, and developed to be cooperative enterprise-based unions.
But recently, CPM (and/or PRSC) is not working well, and employers put emphasis on individual rather than on collective IR. In addition to this, enterprise-based unions have been weakening.

If a performance based HRM system is introduced to a non-unionized workplace, it is apparent that the workers’ situation will be worsened, which is undesirable. Serious problems related to HRM are widespread, for example: unemployment, contingent workers and so-called NEET(= Not in Employment, Education or Training), pay systems which are performance based using MBO ( management by objective), working hours, elderly and women workers and so on. Thus we have a lot of challenges which need to be researched from the workers’ viewpoint. This comprises our significant social responsibility.

 

Table 1 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 1st Conference (1991)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Harue Fujii
(Tokyo Agricultural Univ.)

Change and Process of Women’s Work in Japanese Management

Shigeki Aoyama (Shizuoka Univ.)

Japanese Production System and ‘Japanese Industrial Relations’

Takanobu Yamashita (Ritzumeikan Univ.),

Japanese Management and Computerization

Shin-ichiro Kimoto (Meiji Univ.)

Japanese Human Resources Management and Flexibility

 

Table 2 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 2nd Conference (1992)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Takehisa Hirao (Sapporo Univ.),

Industrial Relations and Union Movement at the Workplace in the U.S.

Masaki Hayashi (Chuo Univ.),

International Transfer of Japanese Management

Ken-ihi Kuroda (Momoyama Gakuin Univ.)

Japanese Industrial Relations and Post-Fordism Theory

Hiroyuki Matzuda (Matzusyo Gakuen Junior College)

The Structure of American HRM in the 1920s

Bei Boogil (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture)

Nature of Foreign Workers

Masaki Saruta (Chukyo Univ.)

Internationalization and Human Resources Management

Hiroshi Kawahito (Lawyer)

Japanese Management and Karoshi (Death from Overwork)

 

Table 3 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 3rd Conference (1993)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Kiyoshi Takagi (Sapporo Gakuin Univ.)

Structure and Function of “ Japanese-type Corporate Society”

Ken-ichi Ito (Osaka Sangyo Univ.)

“Japanese-type Corporate Society” and Corporate Welfare

Shinji Miyazaki (Meijo Univ.)

Restructuring in Big Company and Innovation of Organization

Takashi Hiranuma (Meiji Univ.),

Problems of Human Resources Management in Japan Railway Company

Irina Tikhotskaya (the Institute of Oriental Studies Russia Academy of Sciences)

The Problems of Women’s Labor in Russia

Yoshio Yuasa (Ehime Univ.)

‘The Argument about Labor Process’ and Japanese Production System

Yukichi Takahashi (Senshu Univ.),

“Japanese-type Corporate Society” and Current Industrial Relations in Japan

 

Table 4 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 4th Conference (1994)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Hidejiro Inoue (Kyoto College of Economics)

Flexibility and Labor Market

Kazushi Ikegami (Chuo Univ.)

Labor Flexibility in Information Processing Work

Naoki Tona (Nagoya Gakuin Univ.)

Current Nature of Skill and its Succession

Ken-ichi Kuroda (Momoyama Gakuin Univ.)

Japanization and/or Individualization of Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations in the U.K.

Yoshiji Suzuki (Sapporo Univ.)

On Mobilization of Employment and Wobble of Japanese Seniority Pay System.

Koji Morioka (Kansai Univ.)

Japanese Dual Labor Market and Split in Working Hours Structure

 

Table 5 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 5th Conference (1995)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Tomio Makino (Nihon Univ.)

White Collar Workers in Current Japan

Yuji Kato (Senshu Univ.)

Human Resources Management to White Collar Workers

Hiroki Watari (Waseda Univ.)

Legal Problems of White-Collar Workers in the Case of Transposition, Temporary Transfer and Transfer.

Seiichiro Hayakawa (Hosei Univ.)

Promotion Management to Government Employees.

Rei Seiyama (Ibaraki Univ.)

Current Rationalization in White Collar Workplace and Women Workers

Keiji Natsume (Ryukoku Univ.),

Reorganization of American Corporate Structure and Management of Managers in 1980’s

Masaki Nakata (Ritsumeikan Univ.)

Human Resource Management to Managerial Workers

 

Table 6 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 6th Conference (1996)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Daizo Yamamoto (Graduate School of Doshisya Univ.)

Changing Skill and Technology; Focus on the Labor Process Theory

Kumiko K. Nakano (Graduate School of Kansai Univ.),

The Temporary Help Supply Industry and Restructuring of Labor Force in the U.S.

Miki Sawada (Kanazawa Univ.)

The Present Development of Japanese Industrial Relations and Workers’ Participations

Makoto Ishii (The Institute for Science of Labour)

Positive Use of Female Workers and Hiring of New Female Graduates

Kazuko Kawaguchi (Chuo Univ.)

Reorganization of Japanese Style Personnel Management to Women Workers

Yoshinari Maruyama (Rikkyo Univ.)

Japanization in Work

 

Table 7 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 7th Conference (1997)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Kazumichi Goka (Kanazawa Uni.)

Women’s Workers in Deregulation and Flexibility of Employment.

Yasuko Ikeda (National Confederation of Trade Unions, Zenroren)

Abolition of Protection Clause for Women in Labor Standards Law is a Breach of Privilege

Mami Nakano (Lawyer)

Deregulation and Women’s Workers

Hakumi Mitsuoka (Komazawa Univ.)

The Changes of Employment-Systems and Industrial Relations under the Contemporary Japanese Deregulation

Toshikazu Nagayama (Nihon Univ.)

The Changes of Employment and Labor Relations under the Policy of Deregulations

Satoshi Nishitani (Osaka City Univ.)

The Legal Viewpoint of Deregulation in Labor Law

 

Table 8 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 8th Conference (1998)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Hideo Aoyama (Sakushin Gakuin Univ.)

Personnel Management in the 21st Century and Regular Employees in Japan

Yoshihide Okabe (The Research Institute for National Health of Japan)

Management and Employment in Public Hospitals

Yuji Endo (Kyushu Univ.)

Women’s Work in Changing Form of Employment

Kazuo Matsumaru (Chuo Univ.)

Atypical Employment in the unifield German Labor Market

Kiyoyuki Nishikawa (Ryukoku Univ.)

Diversification of Employment Forms and Transformation of Personnel Management

Iwao Namie (Ritsumeikan Univ.)

Changes in the Employment Form of Regular Employees

 

Table 9 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 9th Conference (1999)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Teruhisa Matii (Hokkaido Univ.)

Restructuring of Steel Industry in Hokkaido

Kou Shiina (Hokkaido Univ.)

Employment Problems of Construction Industry and Seasonal Workers in Hokkaido

Tatsuo Adachi (Kyoto Junior College)

Management Analysis of Resort Development Business in Miyazaki Prefecture

Keiichi Yoshida (Toyo Univ.)

New issues of Regional Economy in Transitional Period

Shyunji Tanaka (Tokyo University of Agriculture)

A Reassessment of the Potential of Regional Enterprises Utilizing Local Resources

Kazuhiko Kawasaki (Hokkaido Tokai Univ.),

The Swedish Model in Transition

 

Table 10 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 10th Conference (2000)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Jin Igarashi (Housei Univ.)

Criticism of Praise for the Japanese-Style Industrial Relations

Takeo Kinoshita (International University of Kagoshima)

Transformation of Labor Competition System on the Wage

Ken-ichi Kuroda (Meiji Univ.)

Performance-based Management and Personnel Ranking System of Competence

Manabu Mine (Housei Univ.)

Employee Appraisal Practices and Their Impacts on Union Solidarity

Shozo Sasaki (Japan Research Institute of Labour Movement)

Auto Industry in the International Reorganization and its Impact on Workers and People.

Takayuki Kimura (Gifu-Keizai Univ.)

Restructuring of the Regional Employment under “the Industrial Mega competition

Nobuko Hasegawa (Institute for Work and Life),

Recent Developments in Labour and Women.

 

Table 11 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 11th Conference (2001)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Syoji Akino (Rikkyo Univ.)

Information and Production System in Japan

Minoru Fujita (Obirin Univ.)

IT Revolution and Changing in Production System

Yoritoshi Nagai ( Ehime Univ.)

IT Revolution and Industrial Relations

Mitsuyoshi Miyuki (Oita Univ.)

Development of Information Technology, Work and Management in Steel Industry

Keiji Natsume (Ryukoku Univ.)

IT Revolution and Temporary Workers in the U.S.

 

Table 12 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 12th Conference (2002)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Hiroki Watari (Chuo-Gakuin Univ.)

Present Situation and Issues of Atypical Employment in Japan

Reiko Okayama (Bunkyo-Gakuin Univ.)

The Feminization of Labor Force and Atypical Employment in Britain

Miki Sawada (Kanazawa Univ.),

The Development of Atypical Employment and the Human Resource Management in the U.S.

Kazuo Matsumaru (Chuo Univ.)

The Development of Atypical Employment in Germany

Norio Taguchi (Iwate Univ.)

A Study of the Employment Problems of an Area

Tsunenori Yasui (Hannan Univ.)

The Changes of Labor Management and Employment Security

Nobuo Morikawa (Hiroshima-Syudo Univ.),

Mixed Factors of Unemployment and Synthetic Employment Measures

 

Table 13 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 13th Conference (2003)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Takashi Moriya (Nara-Sangyo Univ.),

Type of Accomplishment Wage System and Industrial Relations in Japanese Enterprises

Younosuke Ogoshi (Kokugakuin Univ.),

The Transformation of the Japanese Employment System and the Industrial Relations

Kayo Nakagawa (Kochi Univ.),

The Current UK Industrial Relations and the EU

Teiichi Sekiguchi (Chuo Univ.)

Recent Changes in the HRM and Workplace Contractualism in the US Industrial Relations

Masaki Saruta (Chukyo Univ.),

Employment System and Industrial Relations in Sweden

 

Table 14 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 14th Conference (2004)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Takashi Watanabe (Ritsumeikan Univ.)

One of the Challenges in HRM Studies

Hiromu Shima (Doshisya Univ.)

The Problems of Modern Human Resource Management in Japan

Yoshiharu Hyakuta (Komazawa Univ.)

The Historical Examination on the Transformation of Industrial Relations in USA

Teasook Myung (Sapporo Univ.),

Current Situations of Women’s Work in South Korea

Shunichirou Aoki (Japan-China Economic Relations and Trade Centre)

The Reform of Personnel Management in China

 

Table 15 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 15th Conference (2005)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Takashi Hiranuma (Meiji Univ.),

Current Apprenticeship System in the US Auto Industry.

Yutaka Tamura (Toho-Gakuen Univ.),

Learning in the Operation Group and Working Organization

Kazutoshi Tanaka (The Polytechnic University of Japan),

Some Issues of Career Development from the Viewpoint of Vocational History in Japan

Toshikazu Nagayama (Nihon Univ.)

Changes in Utilizing form of Labor Force in Small and Medium-sized Enterprise, and Skilled Workers

Yuji Taniguchi (The Polytechnic University of Japan)

Changes in ILO Advice on International Standard of Human Resource Development

 

Table 16 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 16th Conference (2006)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Masatsugu Takeda (tyuukyoui Univ.),

Changing Patterns of Employment and Working Hour Concerning Female Labor in Japan

Rei Seiyama(Ibaraki Univ.),

Employment Mananagement, Wage Administration, and Gender Equality

Harue Fujii(Tokyo University of Agriculuture),

The Characteristic of Japanese Woman Labor and Irs Change After the War

Tomio Makino(Nihon Univ.),

A Collapse of Japanise-styleManagement in the 21century-in Connection with Structual Reform

Ken'ichi Kuroda(Meiji Univ.)

Human Resource Management and Flexibility Today in Japan

Tadao Chida (Doshisya Univ.)

Human Service Work & Labor

 

Table 17 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 17th Conference (2007)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Makoto Kumazawa(Kounan Univ.),

Japanese Workers; The Critical Situation of Human Right

Kazuyoshi Uehara(Oosaka University of Commerce.),

High Economic Growth of China and Increase of Informal Employment

Katsuhiko Hirasawa(Nihon Univ.),

CSR and Social Dimension

Kappei Hidaka(Tyuou Univ.),

A Proposal for New Business Models based on Symbiotic Pelationship between Multinational Corpolation and Global Society in Modern Global Capitalism

Kumiko k. Nakano(Doushisya Univ..),

Labor Market Reforms in the U.S.A.: from Bad Jobs to Good Jobs

Koji Morioka(Kansai Univ.),

The Worsening Work Enviroment and Corpporate Social Responsibility: Focusing on Long Hours and Contingent Employment

 

Table 18 Main presenters’ names and their speech titles in 18th

Conference (2008)

Presenters’ Names (University)

Speech Titles

Norio Ohashi(Oosaka University of Economics.),

Temporary work and Human Dignity

Toshinobu Hashiba (Mie univ..),

A Reserch Trend on Human Resource Management/Industrial Relations in the U.S. rom the 1990's on: The "High Performance Paradigm" as a Clue

Masanobu Itho (Ehime Uni.),

The Deregulation of Labor Market in Germany Today

Masaki Saruta (Tyukyou Univ.),

Japanese-style Management and Toyota's Human Resoures Management

Norio Taguchi(Iwate Univ..),

Human Resource Management as High-Performance Work Systems in the UK

Yutaka Tamura (Kansai Univ.),

Production and Human Power Management in Sweden: Comparison Swedish Company and Japanese Company

 

(Ken-ichi KURODA, Meiji University)